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Final design and construction of Avala Tower, landscape design and facility below the access platform

Realization: December 2005

The design of new tower was prepared by Saobraćajni institut CIP in the period August - December 2005.


Situated in the protected area of northernmost mountain in Šumadija at 439 m level, touristic and telecommunication AVALA TOWER for many years was unique civil engineering wonder designed by architects Uglješa Bogunović and Slobodan Janjić, andMilan Krstić structural engineer and academician.

The World Federation of Great Towers, Paris, had declared that Avala Tower was the most beautiful tower in the world. It was the only tower in the world to have an equilateral triangle as its cross section. For many years the experts have admired the value of the concept and the structure and attractiveness of the composition while the numerous visitors have admired the view from the belvedere at vast Pannonian plain and rolling foothills of Šumadija.

More than 4000 tons of reinforced concrete were incorporated into the structure which was constructed in the period 1961 - 1965 on the ground above the cluster of interwining subways and 2000-year old abandoned mining shafts. It was the tallest structure at Balkans till 1999. This work culminated withinstallation of 60 m high antenna which weight was about 25 tons. This USW and RTV tower enabled broadcasting of radio program on ultra-short waves and television program which started by the end of 1950's. 

At the same time the tower was a big telecommunication hub toward Greece, Bulgaria, Hungary and other republics of former Yugoslavia.

The Avala TV Tower was destroyed by NATO bombing in 1999.


An action for rebuilding the Avala Tower was initiated by the Journalists' Association of Serbia and Radio Television of Serbia and supported by the Government of Serbia so that all works on reconstruction of destroyed tower started in May 2005.

Many thousand tons of remaining concrete and steel were cleared during the spring of 2005. The clearing was followed by geodetic surveys and measurements, engineering geological, geotechnical and geomechanical investigations and tests and soil consolidation measures in the foundation area according to specifications for the new Tower foundation.

More than 50 experts of different specialties were engaged in implementation of the Final design for reconstruction of Avala Tower. The works were executed in 2007 by "Ratko Mitrović - Dedinje" Company according to design documentation prepared by Saobraćajni institut CIP. The Investor's request was to maintain the visual identity of former tower meaning that the new tower shall have same dimensions as destroyed tower.

The tower structure consists of concrete segment, 136.65 m high and steel segment, 67.85 m high.

The concrete segment was formed of legs, body and seven-storey gondola at the top. The tower legs were buried by 1.4 m and supported by rock i.e. concrete block interconnected with ground beams. The tower body has an equilateral triangle as its cross section. The triangle sides were 7 m long measured along the wall centerline and circular reinforcing pieces were fitted at triangle vertices. An access to tower was enabled via reinforced concrete ramp - bridge, about 60.0 m long and 4.20 m wide.

The seven-storey gondola at the top of concrete segment has three closed storeys and four open storeys.

In addition to rooms and terraces specially designed for antenna, RTV and post office devices, the Avala Tower at level 119.20 m has coffee bar and terrace - belvedere at level 122.60 m that can be reached in less than one minute (40 seconds) by two lifts. In case of fire, evacuation time for the tower is about nine minutes and access control system provides insight into precise number of visitors in the tower higher than 204 m, which was designed to withstand the strongest earthquake.

Having in mind the fact that the former Tower was designed in 1948 before the Law on Designing in Seismic Regions was enacted, it may be concluded that it was very challenging assignment.

Completely new structural analysis for the tower was elaborated, the foundation system modified and foundation depth increased, concrete classes were enhanced to MB 60 and prestressing tendonsinstalled in some structural members that withstand the maximum stresses.

The special attention was paid to fire prevention. Many materials inside the tower were substituted with fire-resistant and non-toxic materials.

  • Design of lift shaft protection against overpressure was prepared
  • The tower body was divided into four fire sectors
  • Water fog system was designed for fire fighting in the restaurant

The tower structure is provided with special structural monitoring system. Results obtained in these measurements will be used for scientific and research purposes and for assessment of tower suitability for use in extreme weather conditions.

Deleveled ground beneath triangular tower base was used to form the segment under the access plateau as new useful space of 930 m2 net area for accommodation of related facilities intended for visitors (trade, catering, tourism).

Supervision of construction works on the Avala Tower complex was performed by the experts of Saobraćajni insititut CIP.

Construction works on the Avala Tower were completed in October 2009.